Cloud Edition: Oracle Exadata Interview Questions and Answers

What kind of subscription options exists for Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service?
  • Non-metered Subscription 
  • Metered Subscription 

What mean by Non-metered Subscription?
A non-metered subscription is an agreement to purchase a specific number of service units over a specific term. Consequently, the charge for a non-metered subscription is not related to actual service usage. Non-metered subscriptions are also referred to as standard subscriptions.

What mean by Metered Subscription?
Metered Subscription — With a metered subscription, you are charged based on your service usage. 

Two varieties exist:  
  • Pre-Paid — With a pre-paid subscription you pay an up-front amount to establish an account that is consumed as you use a service. 
  • Pay As You Go — With a pay as you go subscription you do not pay an upfront amount and are billed periodically for your actual service usage. 

What type of exadata configurations offered for oracle exadata cloud service in Oracle premises?
  • Quarter Rack
  • Half Rack
  • Full Rack system configurations

What type of exadata configurations offered if customer has Exadata cloud at customer palce?
  • Quarter Rack
  • Half Rack
  • Full Rack system configurations
  • Eighth Rack

What is SPARSE disk group?
The SPARSE disk group is required to support Exadata Cloud Service snapshots.  Exadata snapshots enable space-efficient clones of Oracle databases that can be created and destroyed very quickly and easily. 

What is the use of database snapshots?
Snapshot clones are often used for development, testing, or other purposes that require a transient database. 

What are the options to reconfigure storage for ASM disk group in exadata cloud service?
Submit a Service Request to Oracle
Delete and then re-create the Exadata Cloud Service instance

What will be the storage allocation ratio if backup is not on exadata and SPARSE disk group is not required?
  • DATA disk group - 80% of storage space
  • RECO disk group - 20% of storage space
  • SPARSE disk group - 0% 

Which access is mandatory to create Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
Before you can create a database deployment with Exadata Cloud Service, you must have access to an Exadata Cloud Service instance

Which service level option you need to select while creating Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
When creating a database deployment on Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service, we need to select Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service as the service level option. 

Which version of Oracle Database supported for Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
  • Oracle Database 11g Release 2 
  • Oracle Database 12c Release 1 
  • Oracle Database 12c Release 2

Which type of database setup we can choose while deploying the database on Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
  • Database Clustering with RAC 
  • Database Clustering with RAC and Data Guard Standby

Which storage options are available to store automatic database backup?
It can be either Cloud storage  or Exadata storage.

Which role will be created to start working on Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
DBaaS Database Administrator 

What is the workflow for using Oracle Exadata Database Cloud Service?
  • Add and manage users and role
  • Create an SSH key pair
  • Create a service instance
  • Create a database deployment
  • Enable network access
  • Load data into the database
  • Monitor database deployments
  • Monitor the service
  • Patch a database deployment
  • Back up a database deployment

What is the recommended method to stop, start or restart compute node?
Oracle recommends that you use the Oracle Database Cloud Service console to stop, start and restart the compute nodes, rather than using an operating system command.

What kind of scaling are supported for Exadata in cloud service?
Two kinds of scaling operations are supported for an Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service instance: 
  • Scaling within an Exadata system enables you to modify compute node processing power within the confines of your existing Exadata system. 
  • Scaling across Exadata system configurations enables you to move to a different Exadata system configuration. For example, from a Quarter Rack to a Half Rack.

What is bursting in exadata scaling?
With bursting, you can quickly scale up beyond your subscription level to cater for workload peaks. 

You can also scale back to the subscription level at any time. CPU cores beyond your subscription level are charged separately using an hourly rate for the bursting period.

When one should go for scale exadata across exadata system?
  • Processing power that is beyond the capacity of the current system configuration. 
  • Storage capacity that is beyond the capacity of the current system configuration. 
  • A performance boost that can be delivered by increasing the number of available compute nodes. 
  • A performance boost that can be delivered by increasing the number of available Exadata Storage Servers. 

How we can load data into Oracle Exadata Cloud Instance?
You load data into an Oracle database on Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service using the same tools you would use for an Oracle database on another system. However transmission speeds across the internet can be slower.
  • Using SQL*Loader to Load Data into the Database
  • Using Oracle Data Pump Import to Load Data into the Database 
  • Using Transportable Tablespaces to Load Data into the Database
  • Using Pluggable Databases (PDBs) to Load Data into the Database 
  • Using Oracle Public Cloud Data Transfer Services to Move Large Data Sets

Which utility used to take backup in Oracle Exadata Database Service?

Which utility used to patch  Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure software in Oracle Exadata Database Service?

What pre-requites we should check before applying patches?
  • Confirms that the patch is available for download. 
  • Confirms connectivity to the required compute nodes. 
  • Verifies that there is enough space to apply the patch. 
  • Runs the opatch prereq command to validate that the specific patch requirements are met.

Which system user available to access the operating system in Oracle Exadata Database Service?
  • OPC
  • ROOT - It can be accessible using OPC user using SUDO access
  • GRID

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Oracle DBA: Moving to the Cloud

It is important to note that just because you will be moving to the cloud, it is not to say that the DBA you have in-house will be abdicating his or her responsibilities. 

There are duties and tasks that will change once the shift to the cloud occurs, but your DBA will still have a very valuable role to play in your organization. 

One of those roles is to act as a liaison between your company and the remote DBA since he has more knowledge of the inner workings of your enterprise and can offer valuable information that will then be used in the provision of quality services to you. With a better understanding of your needs, you can expect a better service from your cloud vendor.

Here we have mentioned some of the important tasks or skills which required as Cloud DBA apart from traditional DBA skills.
  • Design & Specifications of Database i.e. CPU, Memory, Disk Space, Future Growth, High Availability & Disaster Recovery (Yes even in Cloud, you have to consider HA & DR).
  • Creating & Configuration of Oracle Database is very simple in Cloud with Click of a Button or with REST API & JSON but someone need to invoke these Scripts or Click (Cloud DBA will perform this task)
  • As an Oracle Cloud DBA, you need to learn new tools for Start/Stop i.e. DBaaSCLI (Database as a Service Command Line Interface) or Database Service Console
  • Still, you have to Patch but using new tools like DBaaSCLI with DBPATCHM or RACCLI
  • You still have to do the Back-up and Recovery using new tools and Oracle Storage Service (OSS).
  • You still will be learning about Migration to the Cloud (Lift & Shift) and this is where you can expect a lot of work to migrate existing on-premise databases to Cloud.
  • You still will be learning about Disaster Recovery (or Data Guard ) in Cloud and setting up Disaster Recovery (DR) on Cloud for Data Center Failover (Yes this is not available out of Box & You as Cloud DBA will have to set it up).
  • You still will be configuring RAC on Cloud or you will be deploying maximum availability Architecture. Check my Video Blog on Setting Up RAC Database in Oracle Cloud
  • You still will be configuring OEM CC 13c: Hybrid Cloud Management to Manage both On-Premise & Cloud Database or using Oracle Management Cloud (OMC)
  • Understanding of Exadata components and features
  • Exadata administration skill

Introducing Oracle Exadata X7...!!!

Oracle announced the next-generation Oracle Exadata X7 with significant hardware and software enhancements in overall performance, storage capacity, network bandwidth, and automation.

Oracle Exadata is an Engineered System designed to be the ideal platform for all database workloads.  It features scale-out, database optimized compute, InfiniBand networking, and smart storage for fastest performance and low costs. Specialized algorithms vastly accelerate all types of database processing including OLTP, Analytics, and Consolidation. Exadata’s full-stack automation and optimization of all components slashes the need for skilled human labor, enabling reduced costs and improved reliability.  

Exadata’s simplicity, scalability, and reliability make it the foundation for the recently announced Oracle Autonomous Database Cloud.

Today, Exadata powers 4 out of 5 of the world’s biggest banks, telecoms, and retailers.  Exadata can be deployed on-premises, in Oracle Cloud, or using Oracle’s unique Cloud at Customer. 

Oracle 18c and Its Impact on DBAs

Oracle Database 18c the next generation of the industry-leading database.

Oracle introduces the world's first autonomous database cloud. Oracle Autonomous Database Cloud eliminates complexity, human error, and manual management, helping to ensure higher reliability, security, and more operational efficiency at the lowest cost.

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“DBAs will be fired.. ? It’s the end of DBAs because of the Autonomous Databases..?